The 1863 patriotic song "Ukraine Has Not Perished," composed by Myxaylo Verbyts'kyi from a poem of Pavlo Chubyns'kyi, became the Ukrainian national anthem in 1917 and was reaffirmed in 1991.
These symbols were prohibited as subversive under the Soviets, but secretly were cherished by all Ukrainian patriots.
Its main geographical features are the Polissya and Volyn northern forests, the central forest steppes, the Donetsk eastern uplands (up to 1,600 feet [500 meters] above sea level), and the coastal lowlands and steppes along the Black and Azov Seas.
The Carpathian mountains in the west reach 6,760 feet (2,061 meters) at Mount Hoverla.
Rus is mentioned for the first time by European chroniclers in 839 The Kyivan state experienced a cultural and commercial flourishing from the ninth to the eleventh centuries under the rulers Volodymyr I (Saint Volodymyr), his son Yaroslav I the Wise, and Volodymyr Monomakh.
When Ukraine was divided between the Russian and Austrian empires, the image of Mother Ukraine was transformed into the image of an abused woman abandoned by her children.The national flag colors are commonly believed to represent blue skies above yellow wheat fields.Heraldically, they derive from the Azure, the lion rampant or coat of arms of the Galician Volynian Prince Lev I.Mother Ukraine became a byword, not unlike Uncle Sam, but much more emotionally charged.After 1991 a new generation of Ukrainian writers began to free this image from its victimization aspects. Ukrainian nationhood begins with the Kyivan Rus realm, which arose from a unification of Antian tribes between the sixth and ninth centuries.